Early Man/Pre-Clovis Period 20,000 to 9,000 BC
Evidence shows that native groups lived in Sussex , VA. The Cactus
Hill archaeological site 90 miles South of Richmond shows human campfires,
plant matter, and discarded animal bones that could be from as early as
Paleo-Indian/Clovis Period 9,000 to 8,000 BC
By this point, native people had moved as far as modern-day Louisa County
. The earliest artifacts found in Louisa are “Clovis-type” spearheads. Groups
hunted along the North and South Anna Rivers, and had a sophisticated culture
with an extensive variety of tool-making technologies.
Archaic Period 7,000 to 2,000 BC
During this period native peoples made the transition from hunter-gatherer
societies to established villages and farms. Small spears became the
most commonly used tool, most likely reflecting the disappearance of many
large mammals. The bow and arrow was invented toward the end of this
era, as was the atlatl, a spear-throwing device.
Woodland Period 1,000 BC to 1600 AD
As villages and communities became more established, agriculture
became increasingly important as the dominant means of food supply. Numerous
villages grew around Louisa, and the North American native population could
have been as high as 42 million. The first European explorers began
to reach the New World from Spain.
Colonial Expansion Period 1600-1700 AD
In 1607 the first English colonists arrived, finding a large, vibrant, and sophisticated culture already in America . However, 90% of the native population was killed by smallpox, carried by the English settlers and which they had no immunity to. Groups began to flee westward to escape the disease and English influence, and by 1730 all of the Monacan peoples had fled over the Blue Ridge Mountains and out of Louisa.